How I Warp My Loom ~ Videos
Two Part Video On How I Warp And Set Up My Loom For Navajo Style Weaving.
In the first video, I begin with a warping frame, two warp rods, wool warp yarn, and a plan. Normally I would use the back of my loom as a warp frame, but the cross beams will be in my way and I won’t be able to pass the ball of warp between the warp rod and the cross beam. So I’ve chosen to use a metal bed frame as a warping frame. I place the warp rods as far apart as the height of my desired weaving and secure them. My warp rods in this case are steel conduit with an adhesive tape measure attached to them for ease of spacing and measuring. I chose these, because the only wood dowels I have available here are not hard wood and entirely too flexible. The plan I have sketched out was in my previous post – Designing, Planning and Inspiration. I’m using Brown Sheep wool warp. Most mill spun wool warp doesn’t have enough twist to stand up to the rigors of Navajo style weaving, so I over-spin my warp on my spinning wheel. Giving the yarn additional twist, setting the twist and winding it into a ball is all done well ahead of time. The end and side selvage cords are made then to, by taking a weft yarn and over-spinning it, then Navajo plied.
I was taught to weave with an even amount of warp strings. I used an odd number once, and found that it complicated the entire weaving. It threw the entire process off for me and made it a bit of a pill. So its even number warps from here on out. I tie the warp onto the warp rod at what will be the lower left corner of the weaving, and I take the warp up to the top rod and over that rod, under it and back down the bottom rod, taking the warp over the bottom rod. Always going over the rod in a figure eight. I place my warp turns on the quarter mark according to the ruler and keep an even tension on the warp. One turn every quarter inch will give me 8 ends per inch, appropriate for the size weft yarn I’ll b using. When I encounter a knot from the mill (there are 5 knots in the warp on this weaving) I can only assume that they tied the knot strong enough to continue the process of winding the warp onto the cone. I tie another strong overhand knot that I feel more confident about. When I reach the width of the weaving according to the ruler that I have on my rod. I count my warp turns, I should know how many I need by multiplying width inches X four. Then I tie my warp onto the same rod that the beginning is tied to that will be on the lower right of the weaving.
In the second video I wrap some more warp, Add my shed sticks then add my edge cord. One stick is passed through the space in the warp where it wraps around the rod on each end. This preserves my two sheds or the “criss cross”. I bring these to the center and double check my warping and tie them together so they don’t fall out. One of these sticks will remain throughout the weaving a provide the “stick shed” and the other will become the “pull” shed where a string heddle will be applied. Then the cord is applied. This edge cord is one piece four times the width folded in half with a knot about 5 or 6 inches from the fold, or two pieces each twice the width of my weaving with a knot tying them together 5 or 6 inches from the end. This cord will twine around the warp turns, first one end through the warp turn the other end goes over and through the next warp turn. This serves to space the warps properly and it will hold the warp in place when the warp rod is removed. After the end cords are applied to each end, then the warp must be bound properly to the warp rod so the warp and cord lay against the warp rod and not around it. This is my least favorite part. A weaving this size leaves me with blisters and swollen numb hands. You must bind it very tightly, keeping the natural pairs of warp together and not splitting the end cord. This can be done before or after removing the warp rod. I find it more comfortable to do it before.
The warp must be mounted to the loom and stretched tightly. The string heddle must be made from the lower shed stick to provide the pull shed. The pull shed is made by placing a batten in what will be the pull shed and removing the stick that preserves it. Then a smooth strong fine string is passed through this shed and tied to the stick. Each warp in front of the batten belongs to this shed and should move forward each time this stick is pulled. The string comes forward between the two warps is twisted and looped onto the stick, ensnaring the warp. This is repeated until all the warps in front of the batten are held by the stick by way of the string. Check it by raising the stick with the strings past the batten, being sure that nothing from under the batten is caught and nothing in front of it is missed.
The first and last four picks are treated differently than the rest of the weaving. They are woven over and under two warps at a time to provide coverage of the warp wraps. It should be two warps of the same warp turn. Then the weaving can proceed with the normal over one under one. Side selvage cords are applied and twined as you weave. I haven’t mastered how long to make these, so I go with extra and cut off the excess when I’m done. The stick shed is accessed by bringing the two sticks together and passing the batten in the space between the two layers of warp. The pull shed is accessed by raising the stick shed out of the way, holding onto the pull shed stick and rolling your hand towards yourself and down, passing the batten in the space you’re creating by pulling the back warps forward.
When I warped this loom, I had just returned from vacation. I”m not normally this big, and thankfully I’m shrinking. I’ve also discovered that when you’re a little round, horizontal stripes are not your friend. It’s important to mention that I’m not Navajo and a demo video isn’t a good substitution for a Native Navajo teacher. I may or may not do this like everyone else, but it works for me. Any typo’s, run on sentences, endless paragraphs and poor grammar are intentional and included for your entertainment.